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Ohrid (Macedonia)

Ohrid

Position

Ohrid (Macedonian: Охрид is a city in the Republic of Macedonia and the seat of Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid and the eighth-largest city in the country with over 42,000 inhabitants as of 2002. Ohrid is notable for once having had 365 churches, one for each day of the year, and has been referred to as a "Jerusalem (of the Balkans)". The city is rich in picturesque houses and monuments, and tourism is predominant. It is located southwest of Skopje, west of Resen and Bitola, close to the border with Albania. In 1979 and in 1980, Ohrid and Lake Ohrid were accepted as Cultural and Natural World Heritage Sites by UNESCO. In fact, Ohrid is one of only 28 sites that are part of UNESCO's World Heritage that are both Cultural and Natural sites.[
 
 

History

The earliest inhabitants of the widest Lake Ohrid region were the Dassaretae, an ancient Greek tribe and the Enchelei, an Illyrian tribe.According to recent excavations by Macedonian archaeologists it was a town way back at the time of king Phillip II of Macedon.They conclude that Samuil's Fortress was built on the place of an earlier fortification, dated to 4th century. During the Roman conquests, towards the end of 3rd and the beginning of 2nd century BC, the Dassaretae and the region Dassaretia were mentioned, as well as the ancient Greek city of Lychnidos (Greek: Λυχνιδός).The existence of the ancient Greek city of Lychnidos is linked to the Greek myth of the Phoenician prince Cadmus who, banished from Thebes, in Boeotia, fled to the Enchelei and founded the town of Lychnidos on the shores of the modern Lake Ohrid.The Lake of Ohrid, the ancient Greek Lacus Lychnitis (Greek: Λυχνίτις), whose blue and exceedingly transparent waters in antiquity gave to the lake its Greek name; it was still called so occasionally in the Middle Ages. It was located along the Via Egnatia, which connected the Adriatic port Dyrrachion (present-day Durrës) with Byzantium. Archaeological excavations (e.g., the Polyconch Basilica from 5th century) prove early adoption of Christianity in the area. Bishops from Lychnidos participated in multiple ecumenical councils.
 
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Sports and recreation

FK Ohrid are a football team playing at the SRC Biljanini Izvori stadium in the city. As of the 2012–13 season they play in the second tier of the Macedonian Football League system.



The Ohrid Swimming Marathon is an international open water swimming competition, established in always taking place in the waters of the Ohrid Lake. The swimmers are supposed to swim 30 km (19 mi) from monastery of Saint Naum to the Ohrid harbor.

 
 

Indulgence and fun

There is a legend supported by observations by Ottoman traveler from 17th century Evliya Çelebi that there were 365 chapels within the town boundaries, one for every day of the year. Today this number is significantly smaller.

Church of St. Sophia

Church of St. Panteleimon

Church of St. John at Kaneo

Church of St. Clement

Church of St. George

Church of St. Zaum

Monastery of St. Naum

Church of St. Petka

Church of St. Stefan

Vestiges of basilicas from the early-Christian time, e.g. Basilica of St. Erazmo (4th century)

Robevi family house, museum of archeology

Ancient Theatre of Ohrid

Church of St. Vrači, with frescos from the 14th century. A 14th-century icon from the church is depicted on the obverse of the Macedonian 1000 denars banknote, issued in 1996 and 2003.



Besides being a holy center of the region, it is also the source of knowledge and pan-Slavic literacy. The restored Monastery at Plaošnik was actually one of the oldest Universities in the western world, dating before the 10th century.



 
 
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